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双语阅读,科学家帮你辨别感冒食疗真假

发布时间:2019-09-14 02:11编辑:教学浏览(163)

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    Experts have revealed whether six food staples and supplements really prevent colds and flu.

    蜂蜜热量更高

    专家揭示了六种食物和补品是否真能预防感冒和流感。

    High-sugar diets raise risks for heart disease, obesity and diabetes, but we do love our sweets, so health experts have tried to suggest alternatives, and honey has been foremost among them.

    While honey has long been praised for reducing the symptoms of colds, science reveals it does little more than soothe sore throats.

    高糖饮食会提高患心脏病、肥胖和糖尿病的风险,但我们又爱吃甜食,所以健康专家建议人们选择糖的替代品,而最受推崇的就是蜂蜜。

    尽管蜂蜜一直被人们誉为可以缓解感冒症状,但科学家认为它仅能缓解喉咙痛。

    Honey is actually sweeter than sugar is, which means, in theory at least, that you could enhance flavor equally with a smaller quantity of honey.

    Although an old wives tale claims chicken soup cures a host of ailments, it may simply provide a comforting meal and hydration boost, according to dietitian and British Dietetic Association spokesperson Aisling Pigott.

    蜂蜜其实比糖更甜,这意味着你用更少量的蜂蜜就能达到同样的甜度,至少在理论上是这样。

    还有传统说法认为鸡汤能治愈很多小毛病,但英国饮食协会发言人、营养学家爱斯琳-皮高特说,其实这仅能让你舒服地吃上一顿,补充水分。

    But honey actually has a higher calorie count. It may have more minerals, which looks better on a label but, in reality, these are such trace amounts that they don't offer any real advantages.

    下面就一起来看看这六种食品的真假功效。

    但是事实上,蜂蜜的热量比糖更高。也许蜂蜜含有更多矿物质,成分表更好看,但其实如此微量的矿物质不能真的给你带来什么好处。

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    So, while cutting sugar intake is a good idea, stocking up on raw, organic honey instead might not be.

    Echinacea 紫锥菊提取物补充剂

    所以,少吃糖是好的,但是转而囤积有机原蜜可能就不怎么好了。

    Although often hailed for reducing the severity and symptoms of colds, a 2014 Cochrane review into 24 studies found the flower supplement does not significantly reduce the length of time people suffer with the sniffles.

    蜂蜜抗菌功效有限

    尽管很多人认为紫锥菊可以缓解感冒症状,2014年柯克兰的一项针对24个研究的回顾调查显示,利用紫锥菊提取物制作的补充剂不能显著缩短鼻塞病程。

    Honey's reputation as a medicine is not wholly unfounded.

    Ms Pigott claims there is insufficient evidence to recommend echinacea, however, if people wish to take the supplement it will unlikely do them any harm.

    蜂蜜作为药物的名声并非完全没有根据。

    皮高特女士称,没有足够的证据支持人们服用紫锥菊补充剂。但如果人们想要服用,也没什么坏处。

    Some honey does indeed have antibacterial properties. One byproduct of enzymes in honey is hydrogen peroxide, a powerful germ killer.

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    一些蜂蜜确实有抗菌功效。蜂蜜酵素的副产品之一是过氧化氢,能够强有力地杀菌。

    Honey 蜂蜜

    Plus, honey's texture and consistency are good for keeping wounds clean, and bad for bugs that might want to infect them.

    An old wives tale praises honey for soothing sore throats and suppressing coughs, however, there is little evidence to support this, with many 'pro-honey' studies being funded by companies with conflicts of interest, according to Ms Pigott.

    此外,蜂蜜的质地和稠度都有助于保持伤口清洁,避免昆虫叮咬感染。

    传统观点认为蜂蜜可以缓解喉咙痛,还可以镇咳,但这并没有什么证据能证明。皮高特表示,很多赞成感冒时吃蜂蜜的研究都是有利益关系的公司资助的。

    Honey is moist and its gooey consistency means it can easily spread over and stay over wounds while keeping the tissue from becoming dry and fragile.

    She adds, however, honey is harmless providing people are aware of its high-sugar content and unsuitability to children under one due to the risk of botulism.

    蜂蜜的湿润和黏稠意味着能很容易地覆盖在伤口上,避免皮肤组织干燥脆弱。

    她补充说,在人们知道含糖量高的情况下蜂蜜无害,由于肉毒中毒风险一岁以内婴儿不宜食用。

    The sticky substance is also adept at breaking up biofilms that allow bacteria to accumulate and multiply. It is particularly well-known for fighting bacteria like staph, salmonella, E. Coli and certain bacteria that can infect the gut and cause ulcers.

    Zinc lozenges 锌锭

    蜂蜜还善于分解有利于细菌聚集和滋生的生物膜,对抗击葡萄球菌、沙门氏菌、大肠杆菌和感染肠道、导致溃疡的特定细菌尤其有效。

    Zinc lozenges have been shown to reduce the duration of cold symptoms, such as nasal congestion, coughing and a sore throat, however, dietitian Lauren McGuckin warns many contain high amounts of sugar.

    However, scientists can only say this for sure about Makuna and Malaysian Tualang honey. We don't know yet whether local home grown honey has the same potency - or safety.

    锌锭可以缩短一些感冒症状的持续时间,比如鼻塞、咳嗽和喉咙痛。但营养学家劳伦-麦古金提醒说,很多锌锭片含糖量较高。

    但是,科学家说,只能确定麦卢卡蜂蜜和马来西亚珍稀蜂蜜有上述杀菌功效。本土家养蜂蜜是否有同样的功效就不知道了,也不能确定是否安全。

    People may be better off upping their food sources by eating more seafood, lamb, beef and pumpkin seeds.

    蜂蜜缓解咽痛功效也有限

    人们如果多吃海鲜、羊肉、牛肉和南瓜籽来摄入更多相关营养元素,效果会更好。

    A hot cup of tea with some honey stirred in certainly sounds like it would make you feel better. But it's difficult to say for sure that it will.

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    喝一杯加了蜂蜜的热茶听上去能让你感觉好一些,但很难说真的会让你的病好起来。

    Chicken soup 鸡汤

    When you have a cold, contact with warm water (from tea) may help to bust up phlegm that blocks your airways. But some suspect the real secret to the soothing qualities of a cuppa is in the honey.

    Ms Pigott told NetDoctor: 'There is little evidence to suggest that "chicken soup" per se reduces the symptoms of a cold.'

    感冒时,喝热水(热茶)也许有助于化解堵住气管的痰。但有些人怀疑,热茶舒缓功效的真正秘诀在于蜂蜜。

    皮高特女士告诉“网络医生”说:“没有多少证据表明鸡汤本身能缓解感冒症状。”

    There are studies that suggest that honey does work as well or better than cough suppressant drugs like Robitussin.

    She adds, however, the warming and nutritious meal may help restore sufferers' energy levels, as well as giving them a hydration boost.

    有研究表明,蜂蜜和美敏伪麻溶液等止咳药的功效差不多,甚至更好。

    她补充说,喝上热乎乎且营养丰富的鸡汤能给患者补充能量和水分。

    Most of these, however were considered by the academic world to be widely misinterpreted by the media.

    Garlic 大蒜

    然而,学术界认为这些研究结果多数都被媒体普遍误读了。

    Ms McGuckin said: 'Garlic contains a compound called allicin, which has been shown to be beneficial for the immune system.

    One of the findings that seems to have given the honey trend some additional legs came from a study that said there was 'no difference,' statistically speaking, between honey and one particular cough suppressant.

    麦古金女士说:“大蒜中含有大蒜素,对免疫系统有好处。”

    其中一个研究结果似乎助长了蜂蜜热。该研究称,蜂蜜和某一种止咳药的功效从数据来看“没有差别”。

    'However, the way in which garlic is processed can affect the potency of allicin.'

    Some academics have argued that the cough suppressant in question, dextromethorphan, is not particularly effective to begin with, and the study reported 'no difference' in effectiveness, meaning they could simply both work poorly for treating sore throats.

    “但大蒜的加工过程会影响大蒜素的功效。”

    一些学者指出,研究中提到的止咳药美沙芬本来对止咳就不是特别有效,而研究报告中所说的功效“没有差别”,意思是两者对于治疗咽痛效果都不好。

    She therefore recommends people crush, slice or dice garlic to reap the biggest benefits.

    As is the case for its benefits for wound treatment, the moisture and viscosity of honey may be somewhat soothing to irritated tissue.

    她建议人们把大蒜压碎、切片或者切成蒜末以获得最大功效。

    和蜂蜜对伤口的疗效一样,蜂蜜的湿润和黏稠对发炎组织可能有舒缓作用。

    A 2015 Cochrane study review also found garlic is effective at treating and preventing sniffles.

    蜂蜜不是“液体黄金”

    2015年柯克兰的一项研究也发现,大蒜对治疗和预防鼻塞有效。

    A few years ago, honey seemed to suddenly become a hot topic of scientific research.

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    几年前,蜂蜜似乎突然之间就成了科学研究的热门课题。

    Vitamin C 维生素C

    Studies were linking the natural sweetener to benefits for leading health concerns, including infertility and dementia, and spurring health fanatics to label honey 'liquid gold.'

    Vitamin C is critical to the proper functioning of the immune system, however, evidence suggests it only reduces the length of colds, rather than preventing them.

    有研究指出,蜂蜜有助于解决不孕、痴呆等主要健康问题,一些健康狂人甚至将蜂蜜称为“液体黄金”。

    维生素C对免疫系统的正常运行非常关键,但有证据显示它仅能缩短病程,而不是预防感冒。

    One of these, conducted in 2011, compared menopausal women taking a honey 'supplement' (it was just honey) to those taking estrogen and others taking nothing.

    Dietitian and BDA spokesperson Amanda Squire still recommends people with colds up their vitamin-C consumption via citrus fruits as these sharp flavours may ease congestion and, when taken with honey and warm water, can be soothing.

    2011年开展的其中一项研究将吃蜂蜜“进补”的绝经女性和服用雌性激素以及什么也没服用的绝经女性相比较。

    英国饮食协会发言人、营养学家阿曼达-斯夸尔仍建议患上感冒的人们多食用柑橘类水果摄入更多维生素C,因为水果浓烈的味道能缓解充血症状,而且和热蜂蜜水一起服用还能让人感觉更舒服。

    Menopause comes with an estrogen decline that often coincides with impaired memory for women.

    A healthy, balanced diet also gives people's bodies a better chance of fighting off viral infections, such as colds.

    伴随绝经而来的是雌激素水平的下降,通常还伴随着记忆力减退。

    健康平衡的饮食也能让身体更容易打败病毒感染,比如感冒。

    The honey-taking women seemed to have slightly better memories, and thus local, organic (and expensive) honey got a new identity as 'brain food'.

    Vitamin C is found in all fruits and vegetables but is particularly high in citrus, red peppers, berries, kale and broccoli.

    吃蜂蜜的女性似乎记忆力稍微好一点,因此昂贵的本土有机蜂蜜有了一个新称号——“健脑食品”。

    所有的果蔬都含有维生素C,但在柑橘类、红辣椒、浆果、羽衣甘蓝和花椰菜中含量尤其高。

    It's true that honey contains antioxidants which have protective effects against cell damage that occurs as we age.

    蜂蜜确实含有抗氧化剂,能抵御年龄增长带来的细胞损伤。

    But after that study's publication in 2011, Dr Natalie Rasgon of the Stanford School of Medicine, who studies estrogen and cognition in women, was deeply dubious in an interview with Reuters.

    但该研究在2011年发布以后,斯坦福大学医学院研究女性雌激素和认知能力的娜塔莉·罗根博士在路透社的一次访谈中对这一研究结果深表怀疑。

    'This is not a scientifically rigorous study,' she said.

    她说:“这项研究在科学上不严谨。”

    'I can’t understand how they can compare honey to estrogen. Honey is not even a supplement.'

    “我不能理解他们怎么能把蜂蜜和雌激素相比。蜂蜜甚至都不算一种补充剂。”

    As for fertility, studies assert a range of possible reasons and ways honey could help - but the main thing they have in common is their small size.

    在生育方面,各种研究列出了蜂蜜可能有助于怀孕的一系列原因和方式,但这些研究的主要共性只有一点——都是小型研究。

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